The 70 m (230 ft) high Saviour Tower is the most magnificent of the Kremlintowers, the very symbol and emblem of Moscow. From time immemorial it has been theprincipal entrance to the Kremlin. The tower, like its two neighbors tothe north, was built in 1491 by the Italian architect PietroAntonio Solari.
The tower was given its name in 1658, when an iconof Christ was set up over the entrance. Before the October Revolution,men were required to take their hats off when passing through the gate.Up to 1658, it was called the Frolovskaya Tower. It was not tall originally,but then it was added to in 1624-1625 by the architect Bazhen Ogurtsovand adorned with white-stone sculptures.
The first clock was set into the tower in the 16th century. In the 17th century,it was replaced by a chiming clock,made by the English master Christopher Halloway. Subsequently, the clock'smechanism has been changed repeatedly. The Kremlin chimes that adorn thetower today were made in 1851-1852 by the brothers N. and P. Butenop. Thegigantic mechanism (about 25 tons) of the carillon occupies three storeysof the tower. Until the October Revolution the carillon played the tsaristnational anthem, and between 1917 and 1941 it played the "Internationale".The clock now only strikes the hours. The ruby star was installed in 1937.
© State Museums of the Moscow Kremlin.
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