Yury Dolgoruky (1090-1157) - the Prince of Suzdal and Grand Duke of Kiev.He was the sixth son of Vladimir Monomakh. His nickname "Dolgoruky"(the Long-armed) he earned for his interference in the internal affairsof the southern districts of Russia. He founded Moscow in 1147. In 1156he began to build wooden walls around it and then surrounded them witha deep ditch. The monument to Yury Dolgoruky, as the founder of Moscow,was dedicated in 1954. It was made by the sculptors S.Orlov, A.Antropov,N.Shtamm and by the architect V.Andreyev.

Grand Prince Ivan III (1440-1505) - a talented statesmen and diplomat. During thereign of Ivan III, the unification of the Russian principalities was finishedand Moscow become the capital of a centralized Russian state. The Tatar-Mongolyoke was cast off at last (after 250 years). The new political importanceof Moscow as the capital demanded that Ivan III's residence should be majesticand impressive. Over a period of 35 years, the Kremlin was completely rebuilt.The Kremlin was to become a fitting place for official ceremonies, religiousfestivals and court processions. Ivan III invited masters from Pskov, Novgorod,and Vladimir, as well as masters from Italy which was famous for its architectsand engineers. The Dormition Cathedral,the Annunciation Cathedral and the FacetedHall (Palace of the Facets) were builtduring his reign. Ivan III was buried in the ArchangelMichael Cathedral.

Ivan the Terrible (Ivan IV) - the Grand Prince of all Russia from 1533 and thefirst Russian Tsar from 1547. He was nicknamed "the Terrible"because of his cruelty and suspiciousness. The Khanate of Kazan was subjugatedby the tsar's army in 1552. Ivan the Terrible ordered builders to erecta cathedral to commemorate the great Russian conquest - the IntercessionCathedral. Ivan IV established the oprichnina (special administrative elite)to support the autocracy. During the reign of Ivan the Terrible, tradingrelations were established between Russia and the Great Britain. The firstprinting-house was established by the order of Ivan IV. Ivan IV was buriedin the Archangel Cathedral.

Osip Ivanovich Bove (1784-1834) - an architect. One of the representatives of Empire.He was born in the family of an Italian painter. In 1802-1807 he studiedat the architectural school. After 1807 he worked in Moscow as an assistant,helping M.F. Kazakov and K.U. Rossi in their work in Moscow and Tver. Afterthe Great Fire of Moscow in 1812, he worked as the General Architect inthe projects of reconstruction of Moscow. He took part in the reconstructionof Red Square in 1815, creation of TheatricalSquare with its Bolshoy Theatre in 1821-24, establishment of AleksandrovskyPark, and construction of many other buildings which have since been rebuilt.He died in 1834 and was buried in the Donskoy cemetery.

Dionisius (c. 1440-after 1503) - an artist. During his life he painted many churches,among which was the Cathedral of the Dormitionin the Kremlin. The characteristic feature of his frescos and icons wasthe light and joyful colours. But in general, he paid more attention tothe outer world of his works than to the inner one. Many of his works arekept in the Tretiakov Gallery now.

Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoy (1350-1389) - the Grand Duke of Moscow and Vladimir.He was awarded his nickname "Donskoy" after the victory at theKulikov Field (near the Don River) in 1380. He did his best in saving Moscow,the capital of his possessions. In 1367, on the place where the old Kremlinwooden fortress had been burned, he ordered the building of new walls madeout of stone. Consequently, two attempts of Litvanian Prince Olgerd tocapture Moscow failed. Moscow became the capital of Russia during the governmentof Donskoy. He was buried in the Archangel Cathedralin the Kremlin.

Aristotle Fioravanti (c. 1414-c.1486) - an engineer. He was one of the famousengineers and Kremlin which were made of white stones and decided to buildnew ones made of red bricks. But he didn't realize his plans. He visitedVladimir and researched the Cathedral of theDormition there. In 1505-1508 he built the Cathedral of the Dormitionin the Kremlin in Moscow, but it was much more beautiful than the cathedralin Vladimir.

Alevis Fryazin the Elder (Alevis Milanetz) - an architect. He lived at theend of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th century. He was an Italian.He arrived to Moscow from Milan at the invitation of Ivanthe Third in 1504. In 1494-1499 he rebuilt the walls and towersof the Kremlin along the Neglinnaya River, built the chambers made of stonesin the Kremlin, and made the deep ditch along the Kremlin walls (whichwas later filled up in the 19th century).

Alevis Fryazin (Alevis Novi) - an architect. He was born at the end of 15th century, diedat the beginning of 16th century. He was an Italian. He arrived to Moscowfrom Milan at the invitation of Ivan theThird. He built the Archangel Cathedralin the Kremlin in 1505-1508. According to chroniclers he built 11 otherchurches in different parts of Moscow but they have not been well preserved.

Ivan I Kalita (Money Bag) (?-1340) - the Prince of Moscow beginning in 1325 and the GrandDuke of Vladimir beginning in 1328. During all of the 16th century, Moscowwas competing with Rjazan, Novgorod and Tver for supremacy in Russia, andIvan Kalita played a major role in this fight. During his government, Moscowbecame an important economical, political and religious centre. He receivedhis nickname "Kalita" (which means "purse") becausehe was very prudent and careful politician. He directed extensive constructionin Moscow. There were several churches built in a rather short time (1326-1333).In 1339-1340, there were new walls, which were made out of oak, built aroundthe Kremlin. The Kremlin was surrounded by a deep ditch filled with waterand by an earth bank. Ivan Kalita ied in 1340 and was buried in the ArchangelCathedral in the Kremlin.

Matvei Fedorovich Kazakov (1738-1812) - an architect. He was one ofthe founders of Classicism in Russian architecture. He was born in Moscowand studied in the architectural school. His teacher was Uchtomsky. In1768-74 he worked as an assistant and helped Bashenov on his project ofthe Great Kremlin Palace. He was the designer of several public buildings,including the buildings of the Senate, the University, Golitsen's and Pavlov'shospitals, several churches and others. Kazakov was the founder of thearchitectural school, and his students included Egotov, Bakarev, Bove andothers.

Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) - emperor of France, outstanding military generaland great statesman. Under his leadership, the French army began its attackagainst Russia on the 12th of June 1812. It was the beginning of the PatrioticWar. The Russian army suffered a defeat and, on the 2nd of September, 1812,left Moscow. But, under circumstances of starvation, Napoleon understoodthe difficulties of continuing the war, and came to the conclusion to leaveMoscow. Napoleon ordered his troops to blow up the Kremlin, but the explosionfailed as it was raining cats and dogs, and the fire was calmed down. Nevertheless,there was great damage. He managed to blow up the ArmoryChamber, the Ivan the Great Bell Tower,and the tops of the Pinewood and St.NicholasTowers. The reconstruction of the Kremlin was done under the leadershipof O.Bove.

Andrei Rublyov (c. 1360/70-1427) - a great painter. He was the founder ofthe Moscow Art School. His works (icons and frescos) in Cathedralof the Annunciation in the Kremlin were failed. His famous work,"Troitza," was painted at the end of the 14th - beginning ofthe 15th century. Some of his frescos are kept in the Cathedralof the Dormition at Vladimir now. Rublyov was buried at the AndronikovConvent, where in 1947, the Museum of the Russian Ancient Art, named afterRublyov, was founded.

Marco Ruffo (Marco Fryazin) - Italian architect of the 15th century. According to chroniclers,he worked in Moscow in 1487-1491. After 1485 he took part in constructionof the Kremlin walls and towersmade out of bricks. Together with Pietro Solari, he built the Palaceof the Facets.

Aleksei Viktorovich Shchusev (1873-1949) - an architect, Honoured Architectof the USSR (1930), Academician of the Academy of Science of the USSR (1943).He studied in the St. Petersburg Academy of Art (1891-1897). After 1910he was the academician of Academy of Art. He also was the Director of TretiakovGallery (1926-1929), and the Manager and Director of the Museum of Architecture.He took part in the reconstruction of the building of Kazansky Station(1913-1926), and worked on the first project of the plan of reconstructionfor Moscow (1918-1925). The Lenin Mausoleumwas built under the direction of Shchusev. He was buried at the NovodevichjeCemetery.

Pietro Antonio Solari (Peter Fryazin) (1450-1493) - an Italian architect. After 1490he worked in Russia. He took part in the construction of the walls andtowers of the Kremlin, and built the Palace ofthe Facets together with Marco Fryazin.

Konstantin Andreyevich Thon (1794-1881) - a Russian architect. He studied at theSt. Petersburg Academy of Art. His teacher was Voronihin. In 1819 he wassent to Italy where he worked until 1829. In Russia, he built the Templeof Isus the Rescuer, which was destroyed after the Great October SocialRevolution. He also built the Great Kremlin Palaceand Armory Chamber in the Kremlin.

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